Early post-interventional sonographic evaluation of prostatic artery embolization. A promising role for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)

Hippocrates Moschouris, Konstantinos Stamatiou, Mariana Kalokairinou Motogna, Spyros Vrakas, Michail Kiltenis, Konstantinos Kladis-Kalentzis, Avraam Tsavdaroglou, Nikolaos Papadogeorgopoulos, Kyriaki Marmaridou, Katerina Malagari


Aims: To assess the feasibility, findings and potential value of early post-interventional, contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic (CEUS) study of prostate artery embolization (PAE).

Material and methods: Fourteen patients treated with PAE for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia were prospectively included in the study. Sonographic evaluation of the prostate included: 1) baseline transabdominal and transrectal CEUS (ta-CEUS and tr-CEUS, respectively) 1-3 days prior to PAE; 2) early post PAE CEUS, with ta-CEUS immediately post PAE and tr-CEUS 3 days post PAE; and 3) follow-up with ta-CEUS and tr-CEUS 3 months post PAE. A brief unenhanced US study preceded each CEUS. Post-therapeutic changes in size, echogenicity and enhancement of the prostate were recorded and were correlated with clinical outcomes.

Results: PAE resulted in clinical success in 11/14 patients (78.5%). All sonographic studies were technically adequate, with the exception of ta-CEUS immediately post PAE in 2/14 (14.2%) patients. CEUS studies immediately post PAE and 3 days post PAE showed non-enhancing, welldefined infarctions of the prostate in 10/14 patients (71.4%). There was a strong correlation between ta-CEUS immediately post PAE and tr-CEUS 3 days post PAE regarding the measurements of prostatic infarctions (r =0.98, p< 0.01). The presence of infarctions on early post PAE CEUS was associated with clinical success (p=0.01) and their extent correlated with the degree of prostate shrinkage on 3-month follow-up (r=0.84, p<0.05). The 3 cases of failed PAE showed no infarctions and no prostate shrinkage.

Conclusions: Early post-interventional CEUS of PAE is feasible and may have clinical and prognostic value.


prostatic artery embolization; benign prostatic hyperplasia; contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; prostatic infarctions

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-1340


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