Ultrasonographic and Imaging Appearance of Peripheral Intraneural Vascular Anomalies: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

Georgeta Mihaela Rusu, Constantin Ciuce, Lucian Fodor, Simona Manole, Sorin Marian Dudea

Abstract


The purpose of the paper is to present the ultrasonographic and imaging appearance of two cases of peripheral nerve intraneural vascular anomalies and provide a comprehensive review of the publications on this subject.

The clinical presentation, ultrasonographic appearance, corresponding imaging and outcome of a case of ulnar nerve venous malformation and a case of median nerve arteriovenous malformation are presented.

Literature search revealed 35 papers presenting 52 cases of vascular anomalies involving the peripheral nerves. The ultrasonographic appearance was described only in ten cases. Our review suggests that peripheral intraneural vascular anomalies are twice more frequent in women. About three quarters of them are located in the upper limb, with the median nerve involved in one third and the ulnar nerved involved in a quarter of all cases. Most of the cases are hemangiomas. Peripheral neural compartment syndromes in patients with coexisting vascular anomalies may prompt for vascular neural involvement, requiring diagnostic imaging studies. Gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound are the methods of first choice, as they provide not only direct visual proof of neural involvement but also contribute to the differential diagnosis between hemangiomas and vascular malformations.


Keywords


ultrasonography; peripheral nerves; vascular malformations; hemangioma

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-1459

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