The wide spectrum of ultrasound diagnosis of holoprosencephaly

Cringu Antoniu Ionescu, Simona Vladareanu, Stefania Tudorache, Liana Ples, Catalin Herghelegiu, Adrian Neacsu, Dan Navolan, Ioana Dragan, Daniela Nuti Oprescu


Aim: Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common brain malformation. A wide spectrum of anatomical variants are characterized by a lack of midline separation of the cerebral hemispheres. The aim of this study was to assess the ultrasound diagnostic criteria for HPE.

Material and method: A database of 175 fetuses with central nervous system anomalies identified by ultrasound was collected retrospectively from 2006 to 2016 in this multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Among them 18 cases (10.2%) with HPE were identified.

Results: The prevalence of HPE was 2.5:10.000 with the sex distribution
male:female of 1:1.6. Six cases were alobar subtype, 3 were semilobar, 7 were lobar and 2 were middle interhemispheric variant. In the second trimester, we consider that the abnormal fusion of the lateral ventricles and the absence of the cavum septum pellucidum are the most important landmarks for HPE. Facial abnormalities varied considerably.

Conclusion: This study illustrates the heterogeneity of HPE with different cerebral and facial appearances.


holoprosencephaly; ultrasound; cavum septum pellucidum

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