Sonoanatomy of the spine: a comprehensive scanning protocol from cervical to sacral region

Ke-Vin Chang, Murat Kara, Daniel Chiung-Jui Su, Eda Gürçay, Bayram Kaymak, Wei-Ting Wu, Levent Özçakar


Ultrasound has been increasingly used in the musculoskeletal system, including the spine. In this protocol, the probe positionings, anatomical relationships, and ultrasound images of commonly scanned spinal structures are described. With an international consensus of several expert physiatrists i.e. USPRM; Ultrasound Study Group of ISPRM (International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine), this guide can provide a standardized approach for physicians who are interested in ultrasound diagnosis and guided pain interventions of the spine.


vertebra; sonography; facet; pain; nerve root; intervention

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