Safety of ultrasonic examinations; thermal and mechanical indices

Andrzej Nowicki


This review article combines the reports on the biophysical effects in ultrasonography and provides the rationale behind the mechanical index (MI) and thermal index (TI) complying with the Output Display Standard (ODS). Safe ultrasonic doses are determined according to specific rules, and the screen displays the associated quantities MI and TI. The introduced indices MI and TI take into account the physical mechanism of interaction between ultrasounds and biological tissue, which depends on the temporal and spatial parameters of the acoustic field generated by ultrasound transducers. The predicted temperature increase is determined using three different tissue models: homogeneous, layered and bone/tissue interface.


ultrasonography; thermal index; mechanical index; cavitation; International Electrotechnical Commission standards

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