Effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for detecting the staging and grading of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Xinyue Ge, Zhong-Kai Lan, Jing Chen, Shang-Yong Zhu


Aim: The study retrospectively analysed the accuracy of preoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differenti-ating stage Ta-T1 or low-grade bladder cancer (BC) from stage T2 or high-grade bladder cancer.

Material and methods: We systematically searched the literature indexed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for original diagnostic articles of bladder cancer. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS was compared with cystoscopy and/or transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). The bivariate logistic regression model was used for data pooling, couple forest plot, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC).

Results: Five studies met the selection criteria; the overall number of reported bladder cancers patients were 436. The pooled-sensitivity (P-SEN), pooled-specificity (P-SPE), pooled-positive likelihood ratio (PLR+), pooled-negative likelihood ratio (PLR−), DOR, and area under the SROC curve were 94.0% (95%CI: 85%–98%), 90% (95%CI: 83%–95%), 9.5 (95%CI: 5.1–17.6), 0.06 (95%CI: 0.02–0.17), 147 (95%CI: 35–612) and 97% (95% CI: 95%–98%) respectively.

Conclusion: CEUS reaches a high efficiency in discriminating Ta-T1 or low-grade bladder cancer from stage T2 or high-grade bladder cancer. It can be a promising method in patients to distinguish T staging and grading of bladder cancer because of its high sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy.


urinary bladder neoplasms; bladder cancer; contrast-enhanced ultrasound; meta-analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-2730


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