Noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in the complex cardiac malformation survivors – a review of the literature

Roxana-Cristina Mares, Cristina Oana Marginean


The aim of this review is to summarize the information on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of congestive liver disease sec-ondary to the Fontan and Glenn surgery for complex cardiac malformations, focusing on non-invasive diagnostic modalities. We performed an electronic database search (Pubmed, Web of Science) with the data range from 2001 to 2020. We selected the studies that addressed the pathogenesis of congestive liver disease secondary to cardiac malformations and articles regarding noninvasive methods of determining liver fibrosis in this group. We found that conventional imaging methods do not allow the detection of the initial stages of liver fibrosis. Elastography results are altered by congestion and cut-off values are not yet validated. More studies are required in order to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis secondary to congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital cardiac malformations require close monitoring and early diagnosis of liver complications to allow prompt therapeutic intervention.


congenital heart defects; Fontan correction; Glenn correction; liver fibrosis; elastography

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