Sono-palpation and sono-Tinel in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination: use all “sono-senses”. A systematic review

Carmelo Pirri, Nina Pirri, Carla Stecco, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Levent Özçakar


Flexibility and dynamic perspective of ultrasound imaging allow for a targeted/focused examination, yielding extra find-ings. Sonopalpation – also referred as sono-Tinel for nerves – is one of those particular features of ultrasound examination whereby the ultrasound probe is actively ‘manipulated’. It is paramount to ascertain the painful structure/pathology during the evaluation of a patient and it is not possible with other imaging techniques other than ultrasonography. In this aspect, the cur-rent review aims to provide an analysis of the literature regarding the use of sonopalpation for clinical and research purposes respectively.


ultrasonography; probe; muscle; bone; pain

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