Comments and illustrations of the WFUMB CEUS liver guidelines: Cystic fibrosis associated liver disease

Kathleen Möller, Thomas Friedrich, Ehsan Safai Zadeh, Christian Görg, Christian Jenssen, Michael Hocke, Chiara de Molo, Carla Serra, Yi Dong, Xin Wu Cui, Adrian Lim, Klaus Dirks, David Srivastava, Christoph F. Dietrich


In this series of articles with comments and illustrations on the World Federation for Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) guidelines on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) the topics of very rare focal liver lesions (FLL) are discussed. Improving the detection and characterization of the most common FLL are the main topics of these guidelines. The focus of this review is on the many manifestations of cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD). These include focal biliary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, vascular manifestations with nodular regenerative hyperplasia and portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. This article describes the diverse changes of liver involvement in cystic fibrosis and their appearance on ultrasound, duplex sonography, and contrast enhanced ultrasonography. This knowledge and the imaging should help to recognize liver manifestations in time and enable a correct interpretation of ultrasound images in CF in the corresponding clinical situation.


Cystic fibrosis liver disease; focal biliary cirrhosis; ultrasonography; CEUS

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