Contrast enhanced ultrasound of renal masses. A reappraisal of EFSUMB recommendations and possible emerging applications.

Zeno Sparchez, Pompilia Radu, Mihaela Sparchez, Nicolae Crisan, Gabriel Kacso, Bogdan Petrut


The main imagistic method for characterization of renal lesions is contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Disadvantages of CECT are a contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal impairment, allergic reactions and high costs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) evaluation of hepatic and non-hepatic lesions is a relatively new, but increasingly utilised, diagnostic method. In 2011 the European Federation of Societies of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) updated the Guidelines and Recommendations on the Clinical Practice of CEUS and included in the recommendation the renal pathology. However, there are several possible new indications that have not been discussed (pyelocaliceal masses and renal vein thrombosis) and several issues that remain controversial such as the differentiation of benign and malignant tumours or the differentiation of lymphoma and metastasis. This study aims to review literature data, as well as reveal the latest findings in the field of renal CEUS.


renal tumours; CEUS contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; CECT contrast enhanced computed tomography

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